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Blue and Black Ballpoint Pen Inks: a Systematic Review for Ink Characterization and Dating Analysis
If yes, how would the ink properties change if that date is exceeded? Hello All! I’m a newbie to the fountain pens world and I’m really happy.
Based on these results, a general procedure for assessing the age of ballpoint pen inks on paper was developed. There’s more to a piece of paper than meets the eye – learn more here and paper analysis determining find it. This specialized investigative process extracts historical and forensic evidence from documents, photographs, art prints, books, and other paper-based objects. These tools are used, how or in combination, to characterize the properties of paper in a analysis of ways.
For example, a qualitative analysis shows what materials are in the paper, fiber, ink; quantitative analysis measures how much. Chemical analysis evaluates paper and pH; physical analysis measures gloss, strength, color. Organic paper detects carbon-based traces of plants and organisms; while inorganic analysis identifies mineral paper in pigment and ink.
Each of these approaches provides a set of facts about an artifact’s condition, age or origins.
Dating of ballpoint pen ink.
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The present invention relates to a ballpoint pen ink identification and creation time analysis system and method thereof, and more particularly, to identify and.
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Yes, with certain limitations. We can determine the first date of commercial availability of the ink used to prepare any handwritten or handprinted material. The type of ink does not preclude this examination. If the initial date of commercial availability is more recent than the supposed date of the examined writing, then the document is not what it purports.
We cannot, however, through this technique, determine the specific or even approximate date of preparation. Other techniques can determine the approximate date of preparation of handwritten entries.
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Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper.
The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases. Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.
The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating.
Dating of ballpoint pen ink
Someone trying to sell a baseball allegedly signed by Babe Ruth in the early s, or pass off documents as older than they really are, is up against a serious foe: The United States Secret Service. You might know that the Secret Service is on guard against counterfeit currency. You might not know, however, that it also keeps a one-of-a-kind International Ink Library with more than 11, specific writing ink fingerprints on hand.
Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this.
A method based on using a thin-layer chromatographic method TLC for determining changes in dye of ballpoint pen ink developed with writing age. An ink drawn line of 1 cm in length was cut and placed in Eppendorf tube. Extraction was performed with 20 microL ethanol at room temperature for 15 min, and heated in steambath for 10 min. The ethanol solution 4 microL containing the extracted dyes was then spotted on TLC plate by syringe after cooling.
The ballpoint pen ink spots were eluted in a solvent of isopropyl alcohol. The relations between ratio of peak heights and writing age were attained. Thus, the information on relative writing age can be obtained. And, the powerful evidence for identifying the age of ballpoint pen ink is provided by this method in the field of forensic science.
Dating The Ballpoint Pen Inks Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique
Chemical and physical analysis of inks on questioned documents provides valuable information regarding their authenticity. Comparison of these chemical and physical properties of two or more inks can determine: 1 if the inks were made by the same manufacturer; 2 in some cases, whether the inks are products of the same production batch; and 3 the first production date of the specific ink formulation involved.
When dating tags are detected, it is possible to determine the actual year or years when the ink was manufactured. Dating tags are unique chemicals that have been added to ball-point inks by some ink companies as a way to determine the year the ink was made. Relative age comparison tests performed on inks of the same formula and written on the same type of paper with the same storage conditions performed by measuring changing solubility properties of inks can estimate how long inks have been written on paper.
The type of ink does not preclude this examination. If the initial date of commercial availability is more recent than the supposed date of the examined writing, then.
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Document examination has always been an important part of forensic examination. Incidents of forgery have increased tremendously and to alter these documents pens are widely used. Additions, alterations, obliterations play an important role in document examination. During a forensic document examination a major question which arises in the mind of examiner is: when was a particular ink entry made on the document?
solvents from ballpoint pen inks on paper and seem very promising. Keywords: forensic sciences, questioned documents, ink dating, solvent drying, aging.
There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.
Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file document. Comparison of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame — If other similar documents from the same source and pertinent time frame are available for comparison with the contested document, then:. Writing ink sequencing — Examining intersections areas where two or more pen lines cross to determine the order of writing it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time.
Sequencing of indented impressions and writings — Examining intersections areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time. Paper folds — It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded.
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These were selected from a large ballpoint pen ink collection as representative of the ageing behaviours measured in previous studies [7,. 35].
Aging processes of ments and processes. It allows the determination of the down the aging. Knowledge of some major cartridge , ii physical and chemical properties of the substrate historical changes in ink manufacturing is available e. How, most knowledge of material, etc. In practice, no information on these factors is changes is proprietary forensic information and not how generally available.
This is why the determination of the absolute available. Measured changes are reported as a analysis of time in order to establish an aging curve or a portion of it and the objective is therefore more the determination of a time document than a precise date. E-mail address: Secret Service. Weyermann et al.